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Professor John W. Ferguson
Oral Surgery
Maxillofacial Surgery
Pictures - Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Doctor Roy B. Judge
Prosthodontics

 

Maxillofacial Surgery


This term refers to more major surgery carried out on the jaws and facial bones, or their associated structures, for a variety of reasons as described below. Such surgery can often be carried out working entirely through the patient's mouth, although certain operations require small skin incisions that can usually be placed in positions where they are not readily visible. The range of surgery includes:

 

 

 

Jaw Surgery - Orthognathic surgery
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BEFORE SURGERY

Before Surgery

AFTER SURGERY

After Surgery

BEFORE SURGERY

Before Surgery

AFTER SURGERY

After Surgery

Surgery to correct the size and shape of the jaws is a relatively common procedure, usually done in conjunction with orthodontic treatment to align the teeth. The maxilla (upper jaw) or mandible (lower jaw), or both, may require surgical correction to treat jaw deformities resulting from either developmental problems or following serious jaw injuries.

The aim of such surgery is to provide a correct bite of the teeth and a normal facial appearance. Orthognathic surgery (jaw surgery) is carried out in hospital and usually requires a stay of 1-3 days. Following surgery, the jaw bones are fixed in their new positions using small bone plates and screws (internal fixation) while healing takes place. This technique allows normal function of the jaws soon after the surgery and has eliminated the older technique of wiring the upper and lower teeth together until healing is complete.

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Facial Trauma

Oral and maxillofacial surgeons usually treat fractures of the facial bones following motor vehicle accidents, assaults and other accidents. Most of these patients will be treated in hospital after being admitted through Accident Departments. The treatment of these injuries has become very sophisticated in recent years, using similar techniques to those developed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons for the surgery of jaw deformities.

Small titanium plates and screws are used to meticulously repair the fractures thus ensuring a correct bite of the teeth, normal function of the jaw joint, and restoration of facial appearance. Extensive training in dentistry is an essential part of being able to undertake such treatment.

 

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Aesthethic Facial surgery
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Before

Before Surgery

After

After Surgery

Jaw surgery may be carried out to improve facial appearance. The most common operation is surgery to the chin (genioplasty), particularly for receding or over-prominent chins, in which size and shape may be permanently modified to provide a balanced facial appearance. Correction of asymmetry (crooked jaws or faces) can also be undertaken, as well as a range of other facial deformities.

 

 

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Cleft Lip and Palate

Cleft lip and palate may affect about one person in 800. Following primary repair of cleft lip and palate, during the fist year of life, oral and maxillofacial surgeons are subsequently involved in treatment of associated secondary defects of jaw growth and residual palatal clefts and this surgery is undertaken during the early teens. The most common operation is forward movement of the upper jaw to correct both the bite and facial appearance. Associated with this it is usually necessary to place bone grafts, most commonly taken from the hip, into the remaining palatal cleft.

 

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Jaw-joint dysfunction

Disorders of the jaw joint (the temporomandibular joint or "TMJ") are relatively common and may arise for no obvious reason or following a jaw injury. Such disorders are frequently associated with clicking and locking of the joint, while significant pain may also be a feature. Management does not normally require surgery except in a very small number of cases, with most patients responding well to a variety of conservative treatments.

 

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